Since a decade, scientific community especially chemistry has been mobilized to develop new chemistries that are less hazardous to human health and the environment. Several steps were taken to protect both the nature and maintain ecological balance. But still such an effort is in nascent stage. Are we really protecting earth? Are we utilizing nature’s sources wisely? What are the hazards associated with one wrong step…and with several such steps? We are surrounded by chemistry since we wake up in morning till we sleep in night such as toothpaste, soap, cloth, perfume, medicine, plastic furniture, shoes etc. For those of us who have been given the capacity to understand chemistry and practice it as our day to day life, it is and should be expected that we should use it in a sustainable manner. With knowledge comes the burden of responsibility. We should not enjoy this luxury with ignorance and cannot turn a blind eye to the effects of the science in which we are engaged. We have to work hard and put brain waves together to develop new chemistries that are more benign, and safer to mother earth!! Green chemistry Lessons from past for a better future: Need, Limitations and Opportunities. Principles of Green Chemistry and their illustrations with examples: Scales of measurement such as Atom efficiency, E factors etc., homo vs. heterocatalysis, reaction efficiency, toxicity reduction etc. Green reactions: Green alternatives of starting materials, non-risky reagents, benign solvents (Aqueous medium, Ionic liquids, Supercritical fluids, Solvent free reactions, Flourous phase reactions), and reaction conditions (Nonconventional energy sources: Microwave assisted reaction, Ultrasound assisted reactions, Photochemical reactions), catalysis (heterogeneous catalysis, biocatalysis, phase-transfer catalysis), Replacement of Non-Green reactions with Green reactions (Real/Award cases) Safety for sustainable environment: Hazards assessment and mitigation in chemical industry Future trends in Green Chemistry: Green analytical methods, Redox reagents, Green catalysts; Green nano-synthesis, Green polymer chemistry, Exploring nature, Biomimetic, multifunctional reagents; Combinatorial green chemistry; Proliferation of solvent-less reactions; Non-covalent derivatization, Biomass conversion, emission control.
Reference Books: Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice. P.T. Anastas and J.C. Warner. Oxford University Press. Green Chemistry: Introductory Text. M. Lancaster Royal Society of Chemistry (London). Introduction to Green Chemistry. M.A. Ryan and M.Tinnesand, American Chemical Society (Washington). Real world cases in Green Chemistry, M.C. Cann and M.E. Connelly. American Chemical Society (Washington). Real world cases in Green Chemistry (Vol 2) M.C. Cann and T.P.Umile. American Chemical Society (Washington) Alternative Solvents for Green Chemistry. F.M. Kerton. Royal Society of Chemistry (London). Handbook of Green Chemistry & Technology. J. Clark and D. Macquarrie. Blackwell Publishing. Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis. K. Burgess. Wiley-Interscience. Eco-Friendly Synthesis of Fine Chemicals. R. Ballini. Royal Society of Chemistry (London) Green Polymer Chemistry: Biocatalysis and Biomaterials; Cheng, H., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2010.