Nature of genetic material, organization of genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Structure of chromatin, fine structure of the gene. Different kinds of genes- split genes, overlapping, assembled, polyprotein & nested genes. Gene amplification and polytene chromosome. C - Value paradox, mitochondrial & plastid genomes.
DNA replication – Types of DNA polymerases. Mechanism of DNA replication. Enzymes and accessory proteins involved in DNA replication. Replication of telomeres and its significance. Differences in prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication and regulation. DNA damage and repair.
Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Mechanism of transcription, Types of RNA polymerases and promoter-polymerase interactions. Transcriptional factors. Processing of mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. RNA editing and transport.
Translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: Genetic code, translational machinery, mechanism of initiation, elongation and termination. Regulation of translation, co and post translational modifications. Leader sequences & protein targeting.
Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes- the operon concept, negative & positive control and attenuation. Role of enhancers, cis-trans elements, DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling in gene expression. Environmental regulation of gene expression. RNAi and gene silencing.
Recommended Books: Biochemistry (5th ed.), Stryer, L., Pub: freeman-Toppan. Genes VIII, Lewin, B., Pub: Oxford. Cell and Molecular Biology (7th ed.), De Roberties, E,D.P., De Robertis, E. M. F., Pub: Saunders College publisher. Molecular Biology, Frefielder, D., Pub: Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Limited, Molecular Biology of the Gene, Watson, J. D., et. al., Pub: Benjamin. Molecular Biology, Weaver, R. F., Pub: McGraw-Hill.